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HISTORY OF TURKEY

7500 BC

First Stone age settlements at Çatalhüyük

1900-1300 BC

Hittite Empire with Hattusas as capital, contemporary with ancient Egypt and Babylon

1250 BC

The Trojan war and the fall of Troy

1200-700 BC

Migration of Greeks to Aegean coastal regions. Establishment of the Phrygian, Ionian, Lycian, Lydian, Carian and Pamphylian Kingdoms. The East of Turkey is the home of the Urartians

700 BC

Homer is born in Izmir (Smyrna). Aegean Hellenism begins

546 BC

Cyrus the Great leads the Persians into Anatolia

334 BC

Alexander the Great drives out the Persians

130 BC

The Romans incorporate Anatolia as the province of Asia, controlled from Ephesus (Efes)

40 BC

Antioch sees the marriage of Antony and Cleopatra

47-57 AD

St. Paul spreads Christianity and a community at Antioch is established

313

Roman Empire adopts Christianity

330

Constantine lays out the boundaries of his new capital, Constantinople

527-65

Glory of Byzantium under Justinian

638-718

Muslim Arabs besiege Constantinople

1054

Greek and Roman Churches split over theology

1071-1243

Rise and rule of the Selcuk Turks in Anatolia, Konya is their capital

1096-1204

The Crusades, marking the beginning of the end for Byzantium, a fascinating period in Byzantine history

1288

Ottoman Empire appears in Bursa

1453

The fall of Constantinople - the birth of Istanbul

1520-66

Suleyman the Magnificent sits on the Ottoman throne controlling a huge and powerful empire

1682-1725

Peter the Great initiates Russo-Turkish rivalry

1854

Crimean war

1909

Abdul Hamid, the last of an unbroken line of Ottoman sultans is deposed

1914

Turkey allies with Germany in the first world war

1915

Gallipoli

1919

Ataturk leads resistance to the allied plan to carve up Turkey

1923

Foundation of the modern Republic of Turkey by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Many things happen all at once

1938

Ataturk dies in Istanbul's Dolmabahce palace

1939-45

Turkey manages to remain neutral during the second world war

1946

Charter membership of the UN

1952

Turkey joins NATO

1960

Military coup, successive governments ineffective

1964

Associate member status of EU

1974

Cyprus crisis

1980

Kanan Evren leads military coup. 3 years of military government

1983

Turgut Ozal elected prime Minister

1985-90

Full EU membership for Turkey impeded by Cypriot issue and questions over human rights record

1991-93

Suleyman Demirel elected Prime Minister, inflation at 70%

1993-96

Demirel President, Tansu Ciller Prime Minister, Turkey joins EU Customs Union

1997-98

5 attempts at forming coalition governments, Islamic Welfare party disbanded, reforms as Virtue and is the largest single party in parliament. Military intervenes to prevent Islamicists forming governments. 75th Anniversary of the Turkish Republic (and 15th of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus) celebrated.


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