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GEOGRAPHY TURKEY

Because of its location, Turkey was a region through which ancient Asian Turkish culture moved into Europe, and also a window of Western culture opening to meet the east.

Turkey is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Aegean Sea, which connects the country to the whole world. Because of these long coastal borders and the bridge between Asia and Europe, Turkey has been the centre of major commercial and migration routes.

Turkey is located between Europe and Asia and is roughly a rectangular shape. The largest section is the Anatolian Peninsula at 790,200 km2, known as Asia Minor. Thrace (Trakya) is the smaller area, at 24,378 km2, and is located at the east of Balkan peninsula, bringing the total area of the country to 814,578 km2. With a coastline measuring 8272km, Turkey is a naval country in a central position to the world’s prominent continents.

 

Location:
southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
 

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 35 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 780,580 sq km - land: 770,760 sq km -water: 9,820 sq km
 

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Texas
 

Land boundaries:
total: 2,627 km - border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km
 

Coastline: 7,200 km
 

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea .
 

Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
 

Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau (Anatolia)
 

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m - highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
 

Natural resources: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulfur, iron ore, arable land, hydropower
 

Land use:
arable land: 32% - permanent crops: 4% - permanent pastures: 16% -forests and woodland: 26%  -other: 22% (1993 est.)
 

Irrigated land: 36,740 sq km (1993 est.)
 

Natural hazards: very severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
 

Environment - current issues: water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic .
 

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Environmental Modification
 

Geography - note: strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas

 
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